MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH



--> Within the earth, a continuous movement is taking place. The first, or the internal process leads to the upliftment and sinking of the earth’s surface at several places. The second, or the external process is the continuous wearing down and rebuilding of the land surface. The wearing away of the earth’s surface is called erosion. The surface is being lowered by the process of erosion and rebuilt by the process of deposition. These two processes are carried out by running water, ice and wind.

-->A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth surface. The mountains may have a small summit and a broad base. It is considerably higher than the surrounding area.

--> In some mountains, there are permanently frozen rivers of ice. They are called glaciers.

-->Mountains may be arranged in a line known as <> range. The Himalayas, the Alps and the Andes are mountain ranges of Asia, Europe and South America, respectively.

--> There are three types of mountains- Fold Mountains, Block Mountains and the Volcanic Mountains.

--> Block Mountains are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically. The uplifted blocks are termed as horsts and the lowered blocks are called graben. The Rhine valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe are examples of such mountain systems.

--> Volcanic mountains are formed due to volcanic activity. Mt.Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt.Fujiyama in Japan are examples of such mountains.

--> A plateau is an elevated flat land. It is a flat-topped table land standing above the surrounding area. A plateau may have one or more sides with steep slopes.

--> The Tibet plateau is the highest plateau in the world with a height of 4,000 to 6,000 metres above the mean sea level.

--> In India huge reserves of iron, coal and manganese are found in the Chhotanagpur plateau.

--> Plains are large stretches of flat land. They are, generally, not more than 200 metres above mean sea level.

Tick the correct answers.
(a) The mountains differ from the hills in terms of
(i) elevation
(ii) slope
(iii) aspect

(b) Glaciers are found in
(i) the mountains
(ii) the plains
(iii) the plateaus

(c) The Deccan Plateau is located in
(i) Kenya
(ii) Australia
(iii) India

(d) The river Yangtze flows in
(i) South America
(ii) Australia
(iii) China

(e) An important mountain range of Europe is
(i) the Andes
(ii) the Alps
(iii) the Rockies

Fill in the blanks. 1. A ___________ is an unbroken flat or a low-level land.
2. The Himalayas and the Alps are examples of _______________types of mountains.
3. _____________ areas are rich in mineral deposits.
4. The _________________ is a line of mountains.
5. The ____________areas are most productive for farming.