--> A map is a representation or a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn on a flat surface according to a scale.

-->Maps showing natural features of the earth such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are called physical or relief maps.

-->Maps showing cities, towns and villages, and different countries and states of the world with their boundaries are called political maps.

-->Some maps focus on specific information; such as road maps, rainfall maps, maps showing distribution of forests, industries etc. are known as thematic maps.

-->There are three Components of Maps – distance, direction and symbol.

--> Scale is the ratio between the actual distance on the ground and the distance shown on the map.

-->When large areas like continents or countries are to be shown on a paper, then we use a small scale. For example 5 cm. on the map shows 500 km. of the ground. It is called a small scale map.

-->When a small area like your village or town is to be shown on paper, then we use a large scale that is 5 cm. on the map shows 500 metres only on the ground. It is called a large scale map.

--> Most maps contain an arrow marked with the letter ‘N’ at the upper right hand corner. This arrow shows the north direction. It is called the north line.

-->We can find out the direction of a place with the help of a compass. It is an instrument used to find out main directions. Its magnetic needle always points towards north-south direction.

-->Maps have a universal language that can be understood by all. There is an international agreement regarding the use of these symbols. These are called conventional symbols.

-->A sketch is a drawing mainly based on memory and spot observation and not to scale.

-->A plan is a drawing of a small area on a large scale. A large-scale map gives lot of information, but there are certain things which we may sometimes want to know for example the length and breadth of a room, which can’t be shown in a map. At that time, we can refer drawings drawn to scale called a plan.

Tick the correct answers.

(a) Maps showing distribution of forests are
(i) Physical map
(ii) Thematic Map
(iii) Political map

(b) The blue colour is used for showing (i) Water bodies
(ii) Mountains
(iii) Plains

(c) A compass is used –
(i) To show symbols
(ii) To find the main direction
(iii) To measure distance

(d) A scale is necessary
(i) For a map
(ii) For a sketch
(iii) For symbols