OUR COUNTRY – INDIA
-->India is a country of vast geographical expanse. In the north, it is bound by the lofty Himalayas. The Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Indian Ocean in the south, wash the shores of the Indian peninsula.
--> The peninsula is a piece of land that is surrounded by water on three sides.
--> India has an area of about 3.28 million sq. km. The north-south extent from Kashmir to Kanyakumari is about 3,200 km. And the east-west extent from Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about 2,900 km.
--> India is the second most populous country of the world after China.
--> India is located in the northern hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer (23°30'N) passes almost halfway through the country. From south to north, main land of India extends between 8°4'N and 37°6'N latitudes. From west to east, India extends between 68°7'E and 97°25'E longitudes.
--> Due to great longitudinal extent of about 29°, there could be a wide differences in local time of places located at two extreme points of India. As such, the difference between these two points would be of about two hours. The local time changes by four minutes for every one degree of longitude. The sun rises about two hours earlier in the east (Arunachal Pradesh) than in the west (Gujarat).
--> The local time of longitude of 82°30'E has been taken as the Indian Standard Time. This meridian or longitude is also termed as the Standard Meridian of India.
--> Telangana became the 29th state of India on 2 June 2014. It was previously a part of Andhra Pradesh. Delhi is the national capital. The states have been formed mainly on the basis of languages. Rajasthan is the largest state and Goa is the smallest state in terms of area.
-->The Himalayan mountains are divided into three main parallel ranges. The northernmost is the Great Himalaya or Himadri. The world’s highest peaks are located in this range. Middle Himalaya or Himachal lies to the south of Himadri. The Shiwalik is the southernmost range.
--> The Northern Indian plains lie to the south of the Himalayas.
--> Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Palk Strait.
--> Alluvial deposits : These are very fine soils, brought by rivers and deposited in the river basins.
--> Tributary : A river or stream which contributes its water to a main river by discharging it into main river from either side.
--> To the West of the Western Ghats and the East of Eastern Ghats lie the Coastal plains.
--> The rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri drain into the Bay of Bengal.
Two groups of islands also form part of India. Lakshadweep Islands are located in the Arabian Sea. These are coral islands located off the coast of Kerala. The Andaman and the Nicobar Islands lie to the southeast of the Indian mainland in the Bay of Bengal.
Tick the correct answers.
(a) The southernmost Himalayas are known as
(b) Sahyadris is also known as
(ii) Western Ghats
(c) The Palk Strait lies between the countries
(i) Sri Lanka and Maldives
(ii) India and Sri Lanka
(iii) India and Maldives
(d) The Indian islands in the Arabian Sea are known as
(i) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(ii) Lakshadweep Islands
(e) The oldest mountain range in India is the
(i) Aravali hills
(ii) Western ghats
Fill in the blanks.
(a) India has an area of about ________________.
(b) The Greater Himalayas are also known as_________________.
(c) The largest state in India in terms of area is__________________.
(d) The river Narmada falls into the __________________ sea.
(e) The latitude that runs almost halfway through India is ___________.